Referrals for Exposure Therapy Assessment are warranted from 3 months post-crash if individuals meet the following criteria (based on DSM IV's for specific phobia):
- Marked and persistent fear that is excessive or unreasonable, cued by the presence or anticipation of a specific object or situation.
- Exposure to the phobic stimulus almost invariably provokes an immediate anxiety response, which may take the form of a situationally bound or situationally predisposed panic attack.
- The person recognizes that the fear is excessive or unreasonable.*
- The phobic situation is avoided or else is endured with intense anxiety or distress.
- The avoidance, anxious anticipation, or distress in the feared situation interferes significantly with the person's normal routine, occupational functioning, or social activities or relationships, or there is marked distress about having the phobia.
*From experience, post-crash individuals sometimes do not readily endorse criterion "C."
Referrals for a Driver Competency Assessment are warranted anytime post-medical event, traumatic incident, or medication change thought to be causing an impairment of driving skills or increased risk in driver safety.